Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! – Romans 11:33
I still have much to learn, but from what I see, by God’s grace, Paul is explaining God’s amazing, beautiful plan of redemption. Stand back and behold.
We learn in Romans 11 that it was God’s purpose that the Jews largely rejected Jesus, and this would, in turn, lead to the salvation of Gentiles. This is shown to us in the book of Acts. Up to chapter 6 in Acts, evangelism has, for the most part, been confined to Judea. But then when Stephen was martyred, this led to the dispersion of many Christians to other areas, where they then shared the gospel. The Jews rejected the gospel, and so it went out to the Gentiles.
Then, Paul writes,
Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean! – Romans 11:12
So, it seems that this hardening of the Jews (except the remnant) is temporary. And, in fact, God has plans for their full inclusion.
Then, Paul writes about his own office as the Apostle to the Gentiles, saying that his desire is that as he preaches Christ to Gentiles, the Jews would be jealous and believe. So, the inclusion of the Jews is still by faith.
Paul, then, points to the end of the story.
For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead? – Romans 11:15
What this seems to be saying is that Israel (except the remnant, those who believe) has been rejected. As a result of that rejection, the world has been and is being saved by the spreading of the gospel. But once the full number of Gentiles have been saved, the Jews will once again be accepted, that is, a great multitude of Israelites who are alive will repent and believe on Jesus, and then that signals life from the dead: the final resurrection.
Sheep, is your mind blown? God brought out a Savior, the Savior, from the nation of Israel. By His divine will, they rejected Him, and as a result, the gospel has gone far and wide out of national Israel. And it will be that salvation that will one day make the Jews jealous and turn back to God through Christ. This sheep’s head is spinning, but it’s spinning in delight of God’s masterful plan. Chew on this and enjoy the riches of His word.